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Milan, May 31 - June 15, 1967

Six-Day War -

The Vatican calls for the destruction of the Tent City "Nuova Barbonia" and the Italian government mobilizes the military and destroys it -

Melchiorre Gerbino and Giuseppe Pinelli carry out the bluff of a "Rally in Milan of all beats and provos", then the military create checkpoints around the city and sift it. The Contestation will explode at the opening of schools -

Dissolution of the Movimento Mondo Beat -

Those who made the story of the Movimento Mondo Beat.



June brings war winds.
A Catholic priest, in civilian clothes, Father Flic, has come to camp in Nuova Barbonia. I can clearly see that he is not a priest who contests the Vatican, since he treats the youths with a kind of Christian benevolence.
A French Jew, such Jean Cheko, who sells rings at night in the bars of the Brera district, in the morning arrives in New Barbonia and follows me wherever I go. He tries to understand what would be the position of Mondo Beat, if there was a conflict between Israelis and the Arabs.
Clearly, the two are agents, Father Flic of the Vatican, Jean Cheko of the Zionists.

A conflict between Israelis and the Arabs breaks out on June 5.
Because of this, certainly Mondo Beat will suffer negative consequences, since in war there is no room for peace movements, and this is a war that will involve everyone, for the intrigue of interests that have triggered this war. But, regardless which can be the fate of the Movement, Mondo Beat has to assume a position of neutrality, since the Israelis are supported by the Americans, the Arabs by the Russians. Being in solidarity with one part, no matter which, would cause the implosion of The Contestation, that is about to spread at mass level.

*
In my opinion, we are living the First World Revolution
Six-Day War and the consequences: First World Revolution
*

Returning to the chronological order of the events of Mondo Beat, the reactionary newspapers, which had given us respite for a few days, the time they needed to organize a new campaign against us, returned to attack, La Notte, on June 8, Corriere della Sera, on June 9.

The Vatican maneuvered an asshole,lacquered 'socialist',against Mondo Beat
A political attack against Nuova Barbonia

In the early afternoon of June 10, while Melchiorre Gerbino was giving an interview in his tent, there are sirens of police and gunshots.
Melchiorre Gerbino gets out of his tent, the same does his interviewer, who proves to be not a journalist, but a secret agent, who goes to the tarpaulin "Good people, Corriere della Sera tells bullshit!" and cuts the ropes and drags the tarpaulin away.
In the camping is going on a pandemonium. Half a dozen athletic cops are fighting, with karate moves, against half a dozen vigorous beats, which had never been seen before in Nuova Barbonia. Meanwhile, dozens of common cops chase boys and girls, for the most part in bathing suits, handcuff them and lead them to police vans.
Outside the field, on the side of the square of the petrol station, carabinieri are climbing the barbed wire fence. Behind the carabinieri, among the onlookers who crowd there, intelligence agents, disguised as workers and family men, incite people to invade the field and burn the tents.
In this chaos, Gunilla Unger, taking the little Nino in her arms, reaches the police commissioner Ludovico Reale, who heads the military operation, and asks him to protect the tents. Ludovico Reale, surprised by the arrival of Gunilla Unger and some photojournalists, who take pictures of him with her, agrees to leave Gunilla and some cops to protect the tents, while all the other people of the camping, including me, are handcuffed and taken to the Police Headquarters.
The ridiculous story that they have invented to justify the military attack, is that of Mrs Emma Giovannini, who has come to Nuova Barbonia to bring back home her son Maurizio, but, having been physically prevented to access the camping, has called the police.
In the late afternoon Melchiorre Gerbino is released by the Police Headquarters, since "he has said words of peace, while the battle raged in the camping". This they have declared to the press.
But in reality I have been released because the Vatican and the Zionists fear that without my conduction, which is of equidistance from the two blocks, the Movement might derail toward Soviet positions, while the war is still raging between Israelis and Arabs.
Back in Nuova Barbonia, I find the Tent City obstinately reborn, but it is clear how a mortal blow was inflicted to Mondo Beat, since sixteen of its most committed personalities were jailed speciously, Umberto Tiboni among them. But the tents were saved thanks to Gunilla Unger's cold blood.
At the same moment of my arrival, Giuseppe Pinelli has arrived at the camping. He tells that an impressive number of plainclothes agents are deployed near The Cave. Pinelli proposes to collect from The Cave the material that must be saved and transfer it at the anarchist section Sacco e Vanzetti. So, he will be back the next morning, in the company of a friend who has a car. The coming day is a Sunday, and the Italian establishment rests on Sunday, so we have a day time to act, almost certainly the last day before the destruction of the structures of Mondo Beat.
At night, I reflect on what has happened.
The sham of a fight between athletic cops against other cops disguised as beats, and the masquerade of agents disguised as workers and family men who incited people to invade the field and burn the tents, has not worked. No one person has moved. But if only one person did, the agents disguised as workers and family men would have invaded the field together with him and set fire to all tents. Finally, that person would have been arrested with a huge noise in the media. Such are morality and usual procedure in the post-fascist Italy.
Now, if more than one hundred military were engaged for the destruction of Nuova Barbonia, an operation of this magnitude could not be programmed without the consent of the government Moro. Aldo Moro, who was disguised as a progressive politician, actually was a servant of the Vatican, who surely had received the order to destroy Nuova Barbonia. The moment was favorable, in the optic of the Vatican, because the clamour that the war between Israelis and Arabs was raising, would have amortized the clamour of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia.
Since this seemed to be the real situation, I thought there was nothing better to do than to act so that the destruction of the structures of Mondo Beat would make as much noise as possible. In order to achieve this result, I decided to bluff. So, I have conceived an imaginative rally of all beats and provos of Italy in Milan. Knowing how the holy men of the Vatican are suffering from anal hysteria, I expected that they would rush to protect Milan from such a barbarian invasion of orgiastic contestators. And then, to protect Milan, the government Moro had to mobilize hundreds of soldiers, to set checkpoints at the junctions of all highways and roads with the road network of the city. Incidentally, if the bluff did not work, because the holy men realized that in Italy you cannot make a revolution in the summertime, then I had nothing to lose, since Mondo Beat was destined to end in any case. But if they had fallen into the trap and the structures of Mondo Beat would be destroyed in a prolonged military action and with a great media coverage, then I would have accelerated the spread of The Contestation through the mass, which was the goal of Mondo Beat.
So, I have conceived a flyer, where I announced a rally in Nuova Barbonia of beats and provos from all over Italy, starting almost immediately, ie from June 15.
In my tent, while Gunilla and Nino were asleep, by candlelight I have typewritten this flyer several times, making copies with carbon paper.

                                                                              (anastatic copy)
The final aim was to cause irritation on people,because of the military intervention,and trigger mass contestation     The final aim was to cause irritation on people,because 
of the military intervention,and trigger mass contestation
Rally in Milan of all beats and provos. This was a bluff aimed to cause a massive military intervention

As you can see, in this leaflet I had put together all major issues that annoyed the establishment, as conscientious objection to compulsory military service and, what particularly annoyed the Vatican, sexual freedom. The holy men of the Vatican can't hear about sexual freedom, because, if people make free sex, people are distracted from the sadomasochistic game of the Holy Cross, which is the basic business of the Holy See.

When Giuseppe Pinelli arrived with a car, to pick up the material to save, I made him aware of my plan.
Even Pinelli was sure about an impending military attack to destroy the structures of Mondo Beat, and has agreed that the best to do was to prolong the military action as much as possible, to cause contrariety among people and hasten the spread of The Contestation through the mass.
Then, to implement the bluff, I asked Pinelli to issue, from the anarchist section Sacco e Vanzetti, imaginative press releases about the imminent arrival in Milan of beats and provos coming from all over Italy and abroad. Indeed, for the success of the bluff, it was of capital importance that those imaginative press releases originated from the anarchist section Sacco e Vanzetti, to be credible, because the section Sacco e Vanzetti was a very serious organization, frequented by old characters who had participated in the Spanish Civil War.
Pinelli promised to issue those press releases.

In The Cave, Pinelli and Gerbino have collected more than six thousand copies of the last issue of the magazine Mondo Beat, that they carried to Nuova Barbonia.
That day, which was the day after the military attack, Nuova Barbonia was lively as never before. There were lots of beats, provos, students, who showed solidarity towards Mondo Beat.
In the early afternoon, I have called to rally those youths who wanted to spread the magazine outside Milan. To each of them, I gave for free a hundred copies of the magazine and some copies of the flyer on the "Rally of all beats and provos", and I have assigned to each of them an immediate destination for a city of their choice. With this found, I got rid of more than 5,000 copies of the magazine and I sent away more than 50 youths, so that the copies of the magazine and the youths were saved from the imminent police raid. Finally, I made sure that some copies of the flyer on the "Rally of all beats and provos" fell into the hands of police informants, particularly those of Antonio Sottosanti, Nino the Fascist, who went at a gallop to the Police Headquarters, to deliver the flyer.

Below, a collage of pictures, from different newspapers and agencies, of the military attack against Nuova Barbonia , of which I have already done the description.

For young Italians,the Tent City of Mondo Beat symbolized a 
free land land,accessible by all
Pictures of the military attack against Nuova Barbonia. Milan, June 10, 1967

The military attack against Nuova Barbonia had a great impact on public opinion, because for young Italians, regardless of their political orientations, the Tent City of Mondo Beat symbolized a land of freedom, accessible to everyone.
Eight months of existence had been sufficient to Mondo Beat to undermine the Italian political system. Young people were leaving the political parties, and those few youths, who remained in the political parties, contested them from within. In essence, all political parties which would survive this crisis, and others which would be born from it, couldn't ignore the themes promoted by The Contestation, at the contrary, they had to focalize their programs on affirmation of civil rights and environmental protection.


Some articles on the military attack against Nuova Barbonia

A premise:
Because of intelligence links with the Police Headquarters, Corriere della Sera knew in advance about the police attack against Nuova Barbonia. In turn, Corriere della Sera has informed Corriere d'Informazione and La Notte. Chroniclers and photoreporters of those three newspapers, who were campaigning against Mondo Beat, have arrived to Nuova Barbonia together with the cops and they were the only ones who saw the true facts. Obviously, they have told lies to other chroniclers, who arrived when the police raid had already ended, describing "a furious battle of thugs and criminals against the police".


The chronicler of Il Giorno was not in the field of Nuova Barbonia at the moment of the police attack   The chronicler of L'Unita was not in the field of Nuova Barbonia at the moment of the police attack   A mountain of lies for discrediting the image of Mondo Beat

Articles, from left
The police attack against Nuova Barbonia described by Il Giorno;
The police attack against Nuova Barbonia described by L'Unità;
The police attack against Nuova Barbonia described by La Notte.

Corriere della Sera deriding the beats
"Some specimens of the local fauna" - Corriere della Sera deriding the beats.

Some clarifications:
1 – As I have already mentioned, there were gun shots at the beginning of the military attack. The chronicler of Corriere della Sera, and others informed by him, have written that a cop, attacked by several beats, has fired three times into the air to protect himself. Actually, the three gun shots were a signal, to the fake journalist who was with me in my tent, to get out and cut the ropes of the tarpaulin "Good people, Corriere della Sera tells you bullshit!" and drag it away. Of course, this operation could not be assigned to an uniformed cop.

2 - As it was written in all articles, seven police officers were wounded and had to seek medical attention.
The farce of injured cops is the handbook of all police operations conducted in Italy against unarmed pacifists. Unarmed pacifists, after being brutally beaten, are licking their wounds, while the cops, who have beaten them, go to seek medical attention... This is one of the many tragicomic farces of this Vatican protectorate, which is the post-fascist Italy.

(Corriere della Sera, June 11, 1967)                                                   (Corriere della Sera, June 12, 1967)
Corriere della Sera got the information about the 'Rally' from the Police Headquarters, where Nino il Fascista had brought 
the leaflet   After the sacrilegious wedding, Noemi gives oral sex to Oscar
An extra edition of Corriere della Sera, who had fell in the trap of the 'Rally of all beats and provos'          An indecent story concocted by Corriere della Sera for discrediting Mondo Beat




Destruction of the Tent City of Mondo Beat - Milan, June 12, 1967

The attack for the destruction of Nuova Barbonia started on the night between 11 and 12 June. The operation was conducted illegally, because by law the military could not have done a predawn raid, instead they acted in the night.
Ordered by attorney Veltri, of the Court of Milan, the destruction of the Tent City was carried out by hundreds of policemen, carabinieri, intelligence agents and employees of the Office of Health.
When the raid took place, in the camping were only 54 people, and some twenty of them were secret agents and police informants. The hundreds of youths, who used to attend Nuova Barbonia, were well aware that there would be a raid, and had moved away.

Some pictures of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia

After the campers were arrested, their 
personal goods were destroyed
Pictures of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia. Milan, June 12, 1967. After the campers were arrested, their personal goods were destroyed


Articles on the destruction of Nuova Barbonia selected among those of the reactionary press

La Notte had no perception that would soon failed for lack of readers   Corriere d'Informazione,as well as La Notte,would close forever for lack of readers   Because of The Contestation,
the premises of Corriere della Sera had to be protected, for years, by the military   Because of The Contestation, of Gruppo Editoriale Crespi have remained a chain of bankruptcies and finally, nothing
Articles, from left
Description of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia, by La Notte;
Description of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia, by Corriere d'Informazione;
Description of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia, by Corriere della Sera;
Description of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia, by a magazine of Gruppo Editoriale Crespi.

The destruction of the Tent City of Mondo Beat was considered, by the great majority of Italians, as an injustice, worsened by the worst sort of lies to justify it. People knew well that those longhairs were kind youths, not criminals. Their influence on Italian society was so great that they had conquered the world of music and fashion. The fact that the Movement was inter-classist, in a time when class struggle dominated politics, had brought a wind of renewal among intellectuals. The fact that young people wanted freely to participate in friendships and love affairs, regardless of their social class, was understood by the mass of Italians as a sign of civic maturity, rather than libertinism. The fact that Italian women, because of this wind of renewal, had emancipated, was a historical event... Of course, the Vatican was terrorized! But the strategy that the men of the Vatican adopted to stifle the wind of renewal of the Italian society, instead of stifling the wind has powered it.
It has to be understood that the minds of those who had the task of facing Mondo Beat, were those of small lawyers from underdeveloped areas of Southern Italy, who had enlisted in the police as commissioners and had been transferred to Northern Italy, where local lawyers abhorred the idea to join the police. Nor better was the intellectual standard of many enemies of Mondo Beat who were in the editorial staff of Corriere della Sera, Corriere d'Informazione, La Notte. Many of them were also provincials from Southern Italy, who had made the climb as journalists. Of course, they were able to write in a flowery Italian, but their intellectual dimension was that of Southern Italian provincials.
So, to do away with Nuova Barbonia, they had conceived the plan of secret agents, disguised as workers and family men who, in despair for their children, wanted to invade the Tent City and set fire to all tents. This was insistently written in the articles of La Notte. For the purpose, they had concocted the ridiculous affair of Ms Giovannini prevented from resuming her son from Nuova Barbonia. But their plan did not work, since none of the onlookers has invaded the field to set fire to the tents. And they could not do it alone, because they needed to show a culprit to the public.
In the end, for destroying Nuova Barbonia, the Vatican had to search for the intervention of the judiciary, who would act without any legal support, but because "morality" compelled to act.
But if the holy men of the Vatican had calculated that, with the destruction of Nuova Barbonia and the seizure of The Cave, the story of The Contestation would end there, they had nurtured easy illusions.

Antonio Di Spagna, a true hero of The Contestation.

A former cop, Antonio Di Spagna had joined the Movement at the time of the hunger strike in The Cave, staged because the establishment had hindered the distribution of the magazine Mondo Beat. After the hunger strike, Antonio Di Spagna had taken part in the "Rally to Contest the Establishment". On that occasion he was savagely beaten by cops who had been his colleagues and suffered a concussion. He was hospitalized for two weeks and then jailed for two more weeks. He was the one who headed the team that has fenced the field of Nuova Barbonia and the one who has directed the camping.
Since he was a true anarchist and his only aim was to promote mass contestation, he has acted accordingly in those crucial days which followed the destruction of Nuova Barbonia. So he has promoted contestations in Piazza Duomo, where people who had been evicted from Nuova Barbonia, and others who wanted to join them in protest, have brought backpacks and sleeping bags and have camped.
As the field of Nuova Barbonia was occupied by the military, Antonio Di Spagna has promoted teams of kamikazes, who invaded the field. To capture them, the military had to run all around the meadow. It was then that manifestations of mass contestation have occurred for the first time, when office workers, in shirt and tie, have invaded the field of Nuova Barbonia, for living a moment of fame, lit by the flashes of photojournalists.
At night, when soldiers were away, Antonio Di Spagna symbolically reoccupied the field of Nuova Barbonia, together with many youths who gathered there.

Antonio Di Spagna promoting mass contestation
Antonio Di Spagna that heads The Contestation, day and night

During those three crucial days which followed the destruction of Nuova Barbonia, I have given many interviews. To the question, which every journalist asked, about the fold that events would take, I answered that we were waiting for the arrival of fifty thousand people. I did not speak with emphasis, when talking about this, but with an air almost distracted. Because of the reliability that the Movement had shown along its path, the journalists really believed that fifty thousand beats and provos would invade Milan.
While I was giving interviews, Giuseppe Pinelli has sent press releases to major newspapers, announcing the arrival in Milan of beats and provos. Since those releases originated from the anarchist section Sacco e Vanzetti, newspapers have reproduced excerpts of them. In those press releases, beats and provos were noticed as they moved toward Milan from a geographic arc extended from Palermo to London.
In the Vatican, they went mad and fell into the trap.

La Notte was directed by Nino Nutrizio, a Dalmatian fascist, a journalist who had no code of honour   At Corriere della Sera,they unconsciously feared what would have really happened,years of contestation   Il Giorno was the most friendly newspaper towards the Movement.The best article on the nonviolent revolt of the youth in 
Italy,written by Giorgio Bocca,was published by Il Giorno.  


Articles, from left

Description by La Notte of the arrival in Milan of beats and provos.
La Notte was the most inimical newspaper toward the Movement. It was directed by Nino Nutrizio, a Dalmatian fascist, who had no code of honour, so, the dirtiest press operations against Mondo Beat, usually were assigned to him.

Description by Corriere della Sera of the arrival in Milan of beats and provos.
Corriere della Sera showed the usual hatred towards the Movement, but in this article couldn't conceal signs of worry. At Corriere della Sera, they unconsciously feared what would have really happened, years of contestation.

Description by Il Giorno of the arrival in Milan of beats and provos.
Il Giorno was the most friendly newspaper towards the Movement, from the first days of its appearance and all along its path. The most comprehensive and intelligent article on the nonviolent revolt of the youth in Italy, written by Giorgio Bocca, was published by Il Giorno.

La Notte was the most inimical newspaper toward the Movement   Il Giorno hoping to make headlines,thanks to the invasion of Milan by beats and provos   La Notte was the first,among reactionary newspapers,that failed,for lack of readers
Articles, from left

La Notte trying to reassure people about the efficiency of the police.

Il Giorno, while showing concern officially, below below would have liked an invasion of beats and provos, to make headlines.

La Notte triumphantly announcing that the military held Milano into a fist!

Verily, it's astonishing how, in the editorial staff of the newspapers, no one has suspected it could be a bluff, despite that, in the press releases issued by Pinelli, there were great exaggerations about the many groups of beats and provos that were headed towards Milan. This gives the measure of how provincial and naive was the Italian intelligentsia in those days, in comparison to the cosmopolitan intelligentsia of The Contestation.

*

On June 15, the day of the imaginative rally of all beats and provos, in Milan was going on the largest military operation that one could remember since the end of World War II. On that day, the post-fascist Italian establishment, world renowned for its ridiculousness, has given a portentous show of it.
Two battalions of paratroopers were deployed, one in Piazza Duomo, the other in the field of Nuova Barbonia, while the army was alarmed in the barracks.
All train stations were manned by the military.
Checkpoints were set up at the junction of all roads and highways with the urban road network.
Cars of police and carabinieri ran along the streets with blaring sirens... dancers of Lola Falana's troupe, mistaken for beats, were arrested, beaten, put in prison...
In the early afternoon, at Crota Piemunteisa, Via Pontaccio, the same tavern where the Movement had been founded eight months before, Melchiorre Gerbino officially dissolved Mondo Beat, in the presence of half a dozen writers and journalists.
Of the three founders of the Movement, one, Vittorio Di Russo, had withdrawn from the scene, another, Umberto Tiboni, was in prison, and the fatality of making decisions had fallen on me just.
Because of the destruction of Nuova Barbonia by the military and the requisition of The Cave by the secret services, it seemed obvious to me that there were no other options left to Mondo Beat, if not armed struggle or dissolution.
And then, it was time to dissolve Mondo Beat, in any case, since its historic model, The Contestation, had already been formulated and tested and was expanding throughout Italy. I was sure that The Contestation would explode at mass level in autumn, at the opening of schools, and I have declared it in an interview given to the Television of Canton Ticino.
For me it was time to leave Milan and continue my travels around the world.
When I analyze my involvement in the story of The Contestation, I think the most honest and intelligent action I did was to put myself aside at the right time, and forever, so that The Contestation could be freely represented by the faces of millions of people. Yes, I was, and I am, a true anarchist.

At the moment of the dissolution of the Movement, I had in my pocket £ 60,000 of Mondo Beat, which was the equivalent of a monthly salary of a postal clerk. I decided to liquidate that money in a restaurant near The Cave, in the course of a week's time, the time to see the latest developments of the military intervention in Milan. So, late in the evenings, when the eggheads that guided the military action had a well earned rest, after a day of frantic search for beats and provos of all Europe, Melchiorre Gerbino has met a half-dozen beats and provos in that restaurant, to toast to the memory of Mondo Beat and the health of The Contestation.
Born in Milan, in the same places where Fascism was born, The Contestation was destined to be its antidote and the antidote of all dictatorships, regardless of races and religions, since The Contestation was conceived by an International of Citizens of the World.


Giuseppe Pinelli is the character-symbol of the 
Contestation     Franco Sapi, a writer and a 
photographer, and his young son Ezio, have photographed all major events of the history of Mondo Beat
In memory of Giuseppe Pinelli                Melchiorre Gerbino and Gunilla Unger leave Milan


Those who made the story

Those who made the story of Mondo Beat (picture 1)    Those who made the story of Mondo Beat (picture 2)
Those who made the story of the Movimento Mondo Beat


History of Mondo Beat - Chapter 15